How to approach questions in the English Language section of the CLAT-UG 2022
Passages intended to test ability to understand and analyse text that is at 12th standard level.
May be from various topics, including technical and scientific topics, but you will not need any prior knowledge of any specialised areas to understand or analyse the passages.
Usually a passage will have one point, and arguments or statements that support or counter the idea presented in the main point - try and discern the main point, and see what arguments or statements are presented in support of, or to counter, the main point.
Once you have figured out the main point of the passage, a simple way to extract usable information from the passage is to focus on : Who, What, Why, When, and Where - you do not have to memorise these points, but keeping them in mind when reading the passage will ensure you have a good grasp over its details, without having to memorise them.
Pay attention to paragraph structure - usually, a change of paragraph is accompanied by a change in speaker, or a change in the view point being presented. This will help you find differences in viewpoint, or counter arguments more easily when a question asks you to do so. Similarly for words and phrases like ‘however’, ‘on the other hand’, ‘conversely’, etc.
Vocabulary questions are broadly of two types - one type will simply ask you for the meaning of a particular word or phrase - another type will ask you for the meaning of a word or phrase ‘in the context of the passage’ - in either case, it is helpful to read one or two lines before and after the line in which the word or phrase being asked about appears, so that you are better able to understand the context in which the word is used. Often, you would be able to determine the meaning of the word or phrase by understanding the context in which it is used and eliminating options that do not make sense in that context - even if you did not know the meaning of that word or phrase beforehand.
Once you have read the passage in this manner, approach the questions - you do not need to remember all the details of the passage before approaching the questions - but if you have a good idea of the main point of the passage and its overall structure, you should be able to find specific details the question asks you for relatively quickly and easily.
Pay very close attention to the wording of each question - while the questions follow a handful of ‘types’ (we have described them already in the consolidated video), the question-setters will sometimes make slight alterations to the way they are worded, so as to check that you are reading them closely, and can determine the impact of such changes (e.g., Difference in a question which asks ‘Which of the following is the author likely to agree with’ would imply that there is only one option in line with the author’s arguments, while ‘Which of the following is the author likely to most strongly agree with’ would imply that there is more than one option that supports the author’s arguments, but one option in particular provides the strongest support to the author’s arguments; ALSO watch out for double negatives!)
Make sure you read all the options in a question before choosing the correct answer - even if you are confident that you have found the correct answer in the first or second option you read - sometimes there may be subtle differences in wording in the options, and an option that you think is correct at first sight may not be as good as a later option.
Try and read some of the same sources that the question setters are using to create questions - you do not have to read the entire book, if the source is a book, but keeping track of sources like newspapers and magazines would be very helpful. In particular, read the opinion and editorial sections of newspapers, as many passages are derived from such sources. (This has the added advantage that it will help your preparations for the Current Affairs and General Knowledge section of the paper as well).
Having a study group or someone - even one or two people - with whom you can discuss various passages would be very helpful. Once you and your study partner read the same passage, try and form questions and ask them of each other - such as, what is the main point of the author in the passage, what can be inferred from the passage, what arguments would weaken or strengthen the author’s arguments in the passage.
Practice grammar from any good 10th standard grammar textbook. Some classics, like Wren and Martin’s English Grammar and Composition, are still very very good resources for preparation.
It may not be possible to develop your vocabulary too much in the days left before the exam - but make sure you stop every time you come across a word you don’t understand - whether in the newspaper, in a textbook, or even while watching a show on the ‘net - and find out its meaning from a dictionary. Some good, free dictionaries are available on the Internet - you can even download free dictionary apps so that you always have a dictionary handy on your phone.
Make sure you go through all the practice materials and sample papers provided by the CLAT consortium - these are closest in style and level of difficulty to what you may see in the eventual UG CLAT 2021 paper; make sure you go through all the rationales provided, so that you understand why a particular option is right or wrong.
Illustration Question Set
I assume we all believe that bats have experience. After all, they are mammals, and there is no more doubt that they have experience than that mice or pigeons or whales have experience. Bats, although more closely related to us than those other species, nevertheless present a range of activity and a sensory apparatus so different from ours that the problem I want to pose is exceptionally vivid (though it certainly could be raised with other species). Even without the benefit of philosophical reflection, anyone who has spent some time in an enclosed space with an excited bat knows what it is to encounter a fundamentally alien form of life.
I have said that the essence of the belief that bats have experience is that there is something that it is like to be a bat. Now we know that most bats perceive the external world primarily by sonar, or echolocation. Their brains are designed to correlate the outgoing sounds with the subsequent echoes, and the information thus acquired enables bats to make precise discriminations of distance, size, shape, motion, and texture comparable to those we make by vision. But bat sonar, though clearly a form of perception, is not similar in its operation to any sense that we possess, and there is no reason to suppose that it is subjectively like anything we can experience or imagine. This appears to create difficulties for the notion of what it is like to be a bat. We must consider whether any method will permit us to extrapolate to the inner life of the bat from our own case, and if not, what alternative methods there may be for understanding the notion.
Our own experience provides the basic material for our imagination, whose range is therefore limited. It will not help us to try to imagine that one has webbing on one’s arms, which enables one to fly around at dusk and dawn catching insects in one’s mouth, or that one perceives the world through echolocation. In so far as I can imagine this (which is not very far), it tells me only what it would be like for me to behave as a bat behaves. But that is not the question. I want to know what it is like for a bat to be a bat. Yet if I try to imagine this, I am restricted to the resources of my own mind, and those resources are inadequate to the task. I cannot perform it either by imagining additions to my present experience, or by imagining segments gradually subtracted from it, or by imagining some combinations of additions, subtractions, and modifications.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from Thomas Nagel, “What is it like to be a bat?”, in William Lyons (Ed), Modern Philosophy of Mind, Hachette India, 2010.]
1.1 Why does the author choose bats instead of mice, pigeons, or whales to present the main problem in the passage?
(a) Because bats are very similar to us, and it would be very easy for us to imagine what the mind of a bat would be like.
(b) Because they are mammals, and people are willing to accept that mammals have experience.
(c) Because mice, pigeons, or whales, are more closely related to us than bats are.
(d) Because their habits, behaviour, and sense organs are very different from ours, yet people are willing to believe that they have experience.
The correct answer is (d) - because their habits, behaviour, and sense organs are very different from ours, yet people are willing to believe that they have experience. The author states in the first paragraph that because of these reasons, the problem they wish to propose would be ‘exceptionally vivid’ if raised with bats. Options (a) and (c) clearly contradict the author’s statements in the same paragraph, and so, neither can be the correct answer. While the author does use the fact that they are mammals to justify the belief that bats have experience, this does not distinguish them from mice or whales, and so, option (b) cannot be the correct answer.
1.2 What does the word ‘alien’ as used in the passage mean?
(a) From another country
(b) Unfamiliar and disturbing
(c) From another planet
(d) Hypothetical or fictional
The correct answer is (b) - unfamiliar and disturbing. While options (a), (b), and (c) may all be valid meanings of ‘alien’, only (b) is appropriate in the context of the passage, since the author does not suggest that the bats in question are from another country or planet. The author does not discuss fictional bats either, and so, (d) cannot be the correct option.
1.3 Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?
(a) That we will only understand bats if we understand the chemical processes behind biological echolocation.
(b) That the experiences of other species are not worth wondering about, since our sense organs are different from theirs.
(c) That we cannot understand the experiences of other species by relying solely upon our own organs of perception.
(d) That the experiences of other species are not worth wondering about, since we have our own experiences to worry about.
The correct answer is (c) - that we cannot understand the experiences of other species by relying solely upon our own organs of perception. The author suggests this towards the end of the second paragraph, where they say that bats’ perception and sensory organs are different from ours, and we must “consider whether any method will permit us to extrapolate to the inner life of the bat from our own case, and if not, what alternative methods there may be for understanding the notion.” The author suggests that we do not understand the experience of sensing the world through echolocation, not that we do not understand how echolocation works, and so, option (a) cannot be the correct answer. The author suggests that we have to look for alternate ways of understanding the experiences of other species, not that we should not try to understand them, and so, neither (b) nor (d) can be the correct answer.
1.4 Which of the following is most similar to the problem or question the author discusses in the passage above?
(a) A doctor will not be able to understand what it is like to be an engineer.
(b) A person of one race will not be able to understand what it is like to be a person of another race.
(c) A citizen of India will not be able to understand what it is like to be a citizen of Sri Lanka.
(d) A cricketer will not be able to understand what it is like to be a footballer.
The correct answer is (b) – a person of one race will not be able to understand what it is like to be a person of another race. This option describes a problem related to an immutable characteristic, just like the problem in the passage, about how humans cannot understand what it is like to be a bat. The other options all describe problems related to mutable characteristics – after all, it is entirely conceivable that a doctor may change their profession to engineer, or a person changes their citizenship, or a sportsperson their sport – and therefore, cannot be correct.
1.5 What is the author’s main point in the passage above?
(a) That humans will never understand sonar or echolocation, since we do not have the biological apparatus for it.
(b) That our imagination is very weak, and unless we make a dramatic effort, we will not be able to imagine what it is like to be a bat.
(c) That while bats may have experience, it is very difficult for us to understand or describe that experience, since our minds and ways of perception are different from those of bats.
(d) That bats cannot possibly have experience, since their sensory organs and ways of perceiving their surroundings are different from how we perceive and experience the world.
The correct answer is (c) - that while bats may have experience, it is very difficult for us to understand or describe that experience, since our minds and ways of perception are different from those of bats. The author argues that bats have experience in the first paragraph, goes on to demonstrate how their sensory organs and ways of perceiving the world are different from ours, and finally, concludes that it is very difficult for us to understand what it is like to be a bat, since we are restricted to the resources of our own mind. Option (a) is inaccurate in that it misses the point which is not that we do not understand sonar, but that we do not understand the experience of perceiving the world through sonar. Though the author acknowledges that our imagination is limited by our experience, they do not say that making a dramatic effort will help us overcome this, and so, (b) cannot be the correct answer. Option (d) is incorrect, since the author states at the very beginning of that passage that “we all believe that bats have experience”.
How to approach questions in the Current Affairs including General Knowledge section of the CLAT-UG 2022
Questions intended to test depth of understanding of issues and events of significance,rather than mere fact- or trivia-based superficial knowledge.
While the focus is on more recent and current events, questions may test you on historical information related to such events and significance, in order to better gauge your understanding of the causes of such current events.
Questions may also relate to matters associated with the events mentioned in the passage - for a passage about a natural calamity for example, you may face questions not only about that natural calamity, but similar events in other parts of the world.
Make sure you read the entire passage before you attempt the questions - while the answers to some questions may seem apparent to you, you would be able to pick up valuable clues about the answers to other questions by ensuring you read the entire passage first.
Don’t worry about whether you will remember all the elements of the passage when you come to the questions - the idea is not to test your ability to memorise the passage and answer questions that test your recollection - but do make sure you have a good idea of the overall theme or point of focus of the passage, as this may help jog your memory about any related information you may have read or come across in your preparations.
In line with the overall theme of the UG CLAT 2021, the focus is on comprehension, and your ability to understand and decode the information set out in the passage. While you may not be asked vocabulary questions in this section of the paper, you may be asked the meaning of certain statements made in the passage, insofar as they relate to information associated with such statements - for example, a passage relating to cyclones may ask you what the difference is between a cyclone, typhoon, and hurricane.
As with all the other sections of the UG CLAT 2021, make sure you pay close attention to the wording of the questions - the question setters may be examining your ability to read and follow text closely, and so, may frame questions in a negative manner (e.g., Which of the following is not an example of x?) or may use a double negative as well (e.g., Instead of asking which of the following is an efficient way to do x, the question may be framed as: Which of the following is not an inefficient way to do x.)
Preparation Strategies/ FAQ
The best way to prepare for this section of the UG CLAT 2022 is to have a long-term habit of reading a good set of newspapers and periodicals; in particular, it would help to read the editorial and opinion sections of newspapers and periodicals, as these often provide historical, associated, and ancillary information related to the main subject discussed in the piece. Now that you have an idea of what sources the question setters typically refer to from the introductory video, try and read through similar sources on a regular basis.
If you have not developed a long-term habit of reading newspapers and periodicals, all is not lost! Now that many good sources of news and information are also available online, you can also visit their websites, and go through their archive of editorial and opinion pieces. In this way, you can try and catch up for some lost time.
It may not be possible for you to read all the information covered in this section of the UG CLAT 2022 in the time you have. A good way to try and address this is to form a small group of people with whom you can discuss the topics and areas that are covered in this section. That way, you can not only take the advantage of the fact that other people may have covered the topics you have not been able to, you will also be able to dive into greater depth by questioning each other about each topic, so as to ensure you know more about that topic than you may otherwise have been able to.
We do not encourage nor discourage the use of fact compendiums to assist in your preparation for this section. If you find these useful, please feel free to use them - but make sure you do not fall into the trap of meaninglessly memorising long lists of facts without understanding their wider context, and how they relate to other information.
Illustration Question Set
On 16 January 2020, displaced  tribals from Mizoram, living as refugees in  since 1997, were allowed to permanently settle in . The agreement, allowing 30,000  tribals to permanently settle in , took 20 years and nine attempts in the making, and was signed between the Centre, the state governments of  and Mizoram, and -Reang representatives in the national capital in the presence of union home minister Amit Shah.
The -spread across , Mizoram and parts of southern Assam-are the most populous tribe in . Also known as Reangs in the state, they are ethnically different from the Mizos, with their own distinct language and dialect and form one of the 21 scheduled tribes of .
In 1997, roughly half the  population fled to , following violent clashes with the Mizo population, which led to the s’ demand for an Autonomous District Council (ADC), under the 6th Schedule of the Constitution, in western Mizoram, where they were the more dominant lot, outnumbering the ethnic Mizo population.
On 1 October, as the Centre’s ninth repatriation attempt began, the tribe’s food and cash supply was stopped – prompting the tribe to take to the streets. On 3 October, the union home ministry started a round of talks with the state governments of Mizoram and  to legitimize the 30,000-odd refugees.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "Who are the  refugees?", Shashwati Das, LiveMint, https://bit.ly/3angwDz.]
1.1 The name of the tribe that is discussed in the passage above, and who are also known as the ‘Reang’, has been replaced with ‘’ in the passage above. What is ‘’?
1.2 The name of the state where the displaced  refugees have now been allowed to settle permanently according to the pact signed on 16 January 2020 has been replaced with ‘’ in the passage above. What is ‘’?
1.3 What is the name of the Act, passed in 1958 and applied to several states in northeast India, which allows special powers to the Indian Armed Forces to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”, and which was recently partially withdrawn from some areas?
(a)Prevention of Terrorism Act
(b)Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act
(c)National Security Act
1.4 This person went on a 16-year-long hunger strike to demand the abolition of the Act mentioned in the previous question. What is this person’s name?
1.5 This person signed the ‘ Merger Agreement’ on September 9, 1949, as a result of which ‘’ became a part of India on October 15, 1949. Who is this person?
(a)Maharani Kanchan Prava Devi
(b)Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman Manikya Bahadur
(c)Maharaja Kirit Bikram Kishore Deb Barman
(d)Maharaja Birendra Kishore Manikya
2. Extremely severe cyclonic storm  hit the Odisha coast in Puri early morning on May 3, 2019 with a wind speed of around 175 kmph.
The Navy, the National Disaster Response Force and the Coast Guard are on high alert. The Met department has issued a "yellow warning" for Odisha, predicting heavy to very heavy rain in several areas. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh have been placed on high alert too.
According to the IMD, in the past 126 years (1891-2017) only 14 severe tropical cyclones have formed in April over the Bay of Bengal. Out of those, only one storm crossed the Indian mainland. Cyclone  was the second storm to form in April and cross the mainland. The last severe cyclone 'Nargis' in 2008 devastated Myanmar.
Cyclones are not new to Odisha. The worst one, a super cyclone had hit the state in 1999, killing more than 15,000 people, with most of the casualty being reported from Odisha.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: “Cyclone : 6 things you should know about this severe cyclone”, The Economic times, https://bit.ly/2tBoiJr.]
2.1 What is the name of the cyclonic storm whose name has been replaced with ‘’ in the passage above?
2.2 What was the name of the super cyclone that hit the state of Odisha in 1999, mentioned in the passage above?
(b)Cyclone BOB 06
2.3 The name ‘’ was suggested by which country?
2.4 S. 144 of the CrPC was imposed in Gaya in Bihar in 2019 as part of a reaction to contain the fallout from which of the following weather-related phenomenon that struck the state?
2.5 Which of the following is true about the 2019 Indian monsoon season?
(a)It was the earliest onset of the monsoon in 30 years
(b)It witnessed the lowest monsoonal rainfall in 25 years
(c)It witnessed the heaviest monsoonal rainfall in 25 years
(d)It had no impact on agriculture in the country
How to approach questions in the Legal Reasoning section of the CLAT-UG 2022
One of the biggest differences in the pattern of the Legal Reasoning section of the CLAT-UG 2022 over previous years is that the principle and facts will not be supplied separately to you - as such, the first thing you should do is read through the passage carefully, and identify the principles set out in it.
Once you have done this, read through each question carefully to see if it relates to the same facts as are set out in the passage, or a separate set of facts, or, perhaps, the facts set out in the passage with some alterations.
Now that you have both, the principle and the facts identified, try and break down the principle into smaller parts - for example, a principle may say “A person who operates a drone at a height in excess of 500 feet in a public place is guilty of nuisance.” In such a case, you should be able to identify the three requirements set out in the principle for nuisance - firstly, that the person in question should have been operating the drone, secondly, that that person should have operated the drone at a height in excess of 500 feet, and thirdly, that this should have occurred in a public place. Only if all three parts of this principle are satisfied by the facts can you assume that a person is guilty of nuisance.
When breaking a principle down into its parts, be careful to pay close attention to what we call ‘OR’ and ‘AND’ conditions - the example we saw above had ‘AND’ conditions, that is, all three parts must be satisfied for a person to be held guilty of nuisance. On the other hand, if the principle were worded as follows: “A person who operates a drone at a height in excess of 500 feet or in a public place is guilty of nuisance.”, you would have one ‘AND’ condition, and one ‘OR’ condition. In this situation, for a person to be held guilty of nuisance, the following conditions must be satisfied: they should have been operating the drone, AND, such operation should be at a height in excess of 500 feet OR in a public place. These small changes would result in a big change in the outcome - in the first case, a person operating a drone at a height of 300 feet in a public place would not have been guilty of nuisance, but in the second case, that person would have been guilty of nuisance.
As you can see from the above, small changes to the wording of a principle can make a big difference to the outcome of a question. Similarly, small tweaks to the facts can also have a big impact on the outcome of a question. Suppose you are working on a question that has either of the principles above, and the facts state: “ Rahul takes his drone to a public market, where he meets his friend Sheela. Sheela asks Rahul if she can fly the drone for a little while, and he agrees. Sheela then takes the drone and flies it to a height of 600 feet above the market, so she can get a panoramic shot of the market. Is Rahul guilty of nuisance?” While your first instinct in this case may be to say ‘Yes!’, slow down - the question asks if Rahul is guilty of nuisance, but the facts tells us that Sheela was flying, that is, operating the drone - therefore, Rahul cannot be held guilty of nuisance. It would, of course, have been a different matter altogether if the question asked whether Sheela was guilty of nuisance.
A passage may have more than one principle, and more than one set of incidents - in some instances, the questions may ask you to apply the same principle to different fact situations, whereas in others, each question may relate to a different principle and fact situation - so make sure you pay close attention to each question, determine which principle and facts have been called into question, and only then attempt the answer.
Finally, bear in mind that the question setters do not expect that you are a lawyer before you even go to law school! As such, it is important you do not try to apply any pre-existing knowledge of laws that you may have to the questions in this section - very often, the question setters will tweak a principle of law here and there, with the result that the outcome may be very different from what you may know about some actual law in the ‘real’ world. While you would be expected to have some basic knowledge of law, this is only at the level of a responsible citizen and member of our society - you should be careful not to let any external knowledge or information you may have creep into your analysis of the principles and facts supplied to you in the question.
Preparation Strategies/ FAQ
The Legal Reasoning, Logical Reasoning, and English Language sections of the UG CLAT 2022 are somewhat related, in the sense that they all require you to read and comprehend a passage well. As such, some of the preparation techniques that apply to the English Language and Logical Reasoning sections of the UG CLAT 2022 may also serve you well for this section. See if you want to schedule your preparation time such that you focus on these three subjects as a group.
Since this section of the UG CLAT 2022 is somewhat different from previous years’ papers, you may think that it would not be helpful to attempt Legal Reasoning questions from previous years’ papers, but this would be a mistake. While the previous years’ questions may not ask you to pull out a principle from a passage, and may instead supply the principle directly to you, there is still great value in attempting those questions, since they will help you develop the skill of analysing a principle, examining a fact situation closely, and applying one to the other.
The sample questions and Model Papers provided by the CLAT Consortium would, of course, be one of the best sources of preparation. If you are already familiar with the pattern of these questions from the sample questions or the First Model Paper, consider attempting this section in the later Model Papers (or indeed, the entire paper) in something similar to an actual test environment - time yourself, and make sure you do not take any external help in attempting these questions. Then, analyse the results and try and determine what’s going right, and what isn’t - are you able to pull out the principle but not break it down? Or are you able to deal with the principle easily, but can’t understand the fact situations properly? If the first, perhaps some extra work on Logical Reasoning may help; if the second, maybe you should spend a little more time on the English Language preparations.
Illustration Question Set
1. The first clause in Article 20 of the Constitution prohibits retroactive criminal legislation; a person cannot be convicted for an offence which was not an offence at the time at which it was committed. The second
protection in Article 20 is against double jeopardy and provides that no person shall be ‘prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once’. The third guarantee in Article 20 is against self- incrimination, or compelling a person to be a witness against herself. In Kathi Kalu Oghad (1961), the Supreme Court held that the prohibition against compelling a person to be a witness against herself related to the production of information based on personal knowledge (also called “testimonial evidence”), but did not extend to protection of physical evidence like a writing sample or a thumb impression (also called “physical evidence”).
But can all situations neatly fit this distinction? A recent case, Selvi (2010), provides a fascinating opportunity to revisit this distinction in light of new technologies. The case saw a challenge to the involuntary administration of narco-analysis, the polygraph test, and the Brain Electrical Activation Profile (BEAP) test. Narco-analysis involves the consumption of sodium pentathol, which lowers inhibitions and takes the subject into a trance, inducing her to converse casually. The other two tests detect physiological responses and brain activity, respectively, and estimate the subject’s familiarity with information involving a crime, through which conclusions are drawn.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from The Indian Constitution, by Madhav Khosla, Oxford University Press, 2012.]
Answer the following questions assuming that the decision in Kathi Kalu Oghad, as set out in the passage above, is valid law:
1.1 Mahmood Kaskar resided in the city of Mumbai, and was long suspected of having committed several offences, including smuggling. Kaskar came across a police check-post on the road on 15 December 2019, and, afraid that the police would find the contraband that he had hidden in the trunk of his car, he drove through the check-post instead of stopping. In doing so, he smashed his car through the barricades at the check-post, and a piece from the barricades flew a few feet away and injured a policeman manning the check-post. Kaskar was later caught by the police, and charged with the offence of obstructing justice, which the police claimed he did by crashing through the check-post. Kaskar was acquitted of this charge, since the police were not able to produce adequate evidence before the court. Some months later, the police, bent on teaching Kaskar a lesson, filed charges of injuring a police officer on duty against Kaskar. When Kaskar was convicted, he filed an appeal claiming that the decision violated the protection against double jeopardy in Article 20. Will Kaskar succeed?
(a)No, since the second charge filed against Kaskar was in relation to a different offence than the first one.
(b)Yes, since he had already been prosecuted for crashing through the barricades and could not be prosecuted for the same actions again.
(c)Yes, since he had already been acquitted the first time charges were filed against him.
(d)No, since he was long suspected of having committed several offences.
The correct answer is (a) - no, since the second charge filed against Kaskar was in relation to a different offence than the first one. The passage tells us that the protection against double jeopardy is against a person being ‘prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once’. Since Kaskar was being prosecuted for a different offence the second time (that of injuring a police officer on duty) than the first time (that of obstructing justice), the protection against double jeopardy would not apply in this case. Since the second prosecution involved a different offence, options (b) and (c) cannot be the correct answer. Option (d) is irrelevant to the question, and so, cannot be the correct answer.
1.2 Sometime after the two prosecutions mentioned in the previous question, the police manage to recover CCTV footage from the area near the place where the police check-post was, and filed fresh charges of obstructing justice against Kaskar for crashing through the check-post. They claim that the CCTV footage would help them win the case this time. Kaskar claims that this fresh, third trial, violates his protection against double jeopardy in Article 20 of the Constitution. Will he succeed?
(a)Yes, since Kaskar is a citizen of India and is protected under Article 20 of the Constitution.
(b)No, since the police were able to bring fresh evidence before the court in this new trial.
(c)Yes, since he had already been prosecuted for the offence of obstructing justice and was acquitted.
(d)No, since he was prosecuted but not punished for the same offence in the first trial.
The correct answer is (d) - no, since he was prosecuted but not punished for the same offence in the first trial. The protection under Article 20 is against a person being ‘prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once’. Since Kaskar had been prosecuted, but not punished in the first trial, he would not have the advantage of this protection under Article 20. For the same reason, (c) cannot be the correct answer. While options (a) and (b) may be true, they do not address the issue of whether the protection under Article 20 applies in this third trial, and so, neither (a) nor (b) can be the correct answer.
1.3 Concerned at the increasing number of instances of rash driving in Mumbai, the legislature passes a law on 12 January 2020, making rash driving a criminal offence punishable with three months’ imprisonment. The police, who are hell-bent on punishing Kaskar by now, file fresh charges and initiate a fourth case against Kaskar, claiming that his act of driving through the police check-post constituted rash driving. Kaskar now claims that this fourth trial violates the first clause of Article 20. Will the police succeed in this fourth trial?
(a)Yes, since Kaskar had injured a policeman when he drove through the check-post.
(b)No, since driving through a check-post does not constitute rash driving.
(c)No, since rash driving was not an offence at the time Kaskar drove through the police check-post.
(d)Yes, since Kaskar had been prosecuted for different offences in the previous three trials.
The correct answer is (c) – no, since rash driving was not an offence at the time Kaskar drove through the police check-post. The first clause of Article 20 provides that “a person cannot be convicted for an offence which was not an offence at the time at which it was committed”. Since rash driving was not an offence on 15 December 2019 when Kaskar drove through the check-post, he cannot be punished for having committed that offence. While options (a) and (b) may or may not be true, they do not address the question of whether Kaskar’s rights under the first clause of Article 20 had been violated, and so, neither (a) nor (b) can be the correct answer. Option (d) is irrelevant to the question – it addresses the issue of double jeopardy rather than the protection under the first clause of Article 20, and so, (d) cannot be the correct answer.
1.4 While he was in custody, the police decided to investigate whether Kaskar was involved in the instances of smuggling that he was suspected of having committed. They asked him to produce a DNA sample that they could use to compare against the evidence they obtained from a boat suspected to have been used in such smuggling activities. Kaskar refused, claiming that forcing him to provide a DNA sample would violate his protection against self-incrimination under Article 20. Can the police force Kaskar to provide the DNA sample?
(a)Yes, since DNA samples amount to physical evidence, and not testimonial evidence.
(b)Yes, since smuggling is a serious offence, and Kaskar was already suspected of being involved in it.
(c)No, since producing DNA samples would amount to compelling Kaskar to be a witness against himself.
(d)No, since Kaskar had not been charged with smuggling at the time he was asked to produce the sample.
The correct answer is (a) – yes, since DNA samples amount to physical evidence, and not testimonial evidence. The decision in Kathu Kalu Oghad clarifies that the protection against self-incrimination under Article 20 extends to “the production of information based on personal knowledge” (testimonial evidence) but not ‘physical evidence’ like “a writing sample or a thumb impression”. For this reason, (c) cannot be the correct answer. Options (b) and (d) may be true, but they do not address the question, and so, neither can be the correct answer.
1.5 Assuming that the Supreme Court was bound to follow the decision in Kathu Kalu Oghad while deciding Selvi, what decision should the Supreme Court have taken in Selvi as regards the forcible administration of narco-analysis on a person?
(a)It would be constitutional, since it is a new technology, and is different from other techniques of extracting evidence like fingerprints or thumb impressions.
(b)It would be unconstitutional, since it would amount to forcibly extracting testimonial evidence.
(c)It would be constitutional, since it only has a physical effect, and so, would amount to extracting physical evidence.
(d)It would be unconstitutional, since it puts a person in an abnormal state of mind where they cannot remember their rights under Article 20.
The correct answer is (b) – it would be unconstitutional, since it would amount to forcibly extracting testimonial evidence. As the passage tells us, the administration of sodium penthathol would lower a person’s inhibitions, and take them into a trance, inducing them to converse casually – as a result of which, they may provide information based on personal knowledge (testimonial evidence). While it may be a new technology, and different from thumb impressions or handwriting samples, the forcible use of narco-analysis may result in the extraction of testimonial evidence, and so, (a) cannot be the correct answer. While it may have a physical effect, the end result of forcible administration of narco-analysis would be the extraction of testimonial evidence, and so, (c) cannot be the correct answer. While (d) may be true, it does not address the issue of whether the forcible administration of narco-analysis violates the protection against self-incrimination under Article 20, and so, (d) cannot be the correct answer.
How to approach questions in the Logical Reasoning section of the CLAT-UG 2022
As you can well imagine, arguments are a very important part of studying law. Arguments are usually sets of facts or pieces of evidence (called ‘premises’) which support a ‘conclusion’. These premises and conclusions together form arguments, and arguments are at the heart of the Logical Reasoning section of the UG CLAT 2022.
Given this, the first thing you should do when attempting a question in this section of the UG CLAT 2022 is to carefully identify the various premises and conclusions in the passage. Once you have done this, you will be better prepared to take on the questions.
Now that you have identified the premises and conclusions in the passage, try and determine if there is an overall theme, point, or conclusion to the passage. This is important, not only because many questions will ask you to identify these, but also because they will give you a better understanding of the overall tone, theme, and parts of the passage. With this information at hand, you should be able to easily answer questions that ask you to identify the main theme or conclusion of the passage, as well as questions that ask you to identify arguments in support of, or against, the author’s arguments.
Some passages may include more than one point of view, or more than one set of arguments, some of which may weaken or contradict each other. Identifying and separating these is very important, so that you know not only what the main conclusion is, but whether the passage has a main conclusion at all, or if it only presents different points of view.
As always, it is very important you read each question carefully before trying to determine what the correct answer is. A question may ask which option weakens the argument in the passage - in which case it is safe to assume that only one of the options weakens the argument in the passage; or it may ask which option most weakens the argument in the passage - in which case more than one option may weaken the argument in the passage, and it is your job to identify which weakens the argument the most.
Some questions may ask you to assume certain things as true, even when you may otherwise know them to be false, or even if they contradict the information in the passage. In such situations, it is important that you follow the instructions in the question strictly - remember, the question setters are examining your ability to read and comprehend information and instructions in this section, and not your pre-existing knowledge. The question setters are also interested in understanding how quickly you can adapt to changes in facts, premises, and conclusions, and so, it is important that you approach each question without carrying any baggage from the previous questions.
When a question asks you what a statement from the passage implies, you are required to do two things - look at the statement and see what it says explicitly, and also try and determine what it may mean, without stating explicitly. To do this, you will have to apply all the skills that this section requires of you - not only will you have to comprehend the statement and its parts, you will also have to extend the argument to the various possibilities set out in the options. In such a case, identifying the overall theme or conclusion of the passage, which we talked about a little earlier, is very helpful - the overall theme or principle often provides you a simple summary of the arguments in the passage that can help you extend the statement to the different possibilities set out in the options.
Preparation Strategies/ FAQ
While the Logical Reasoning section of the UG CLAT 2022 is very different from previous years’ papers, some questions from the older formats may still be included - such as logic games or syllogisms. It would, therefore, be a good idea to practice with previous years’ papers, so that you can pick up some ‘easy’ marks for such questions.
As we saw in the video on Legal Reasoning, this section of the UG CLAT 2022 is closely related to the English Language and Legal Reasoning sections. Given this, it would be a good idea to modify your preparation strategy so that you prepare for these three sections together. Very often, the same, or similar sources are used by the question setters for questions in this section as in the English Language and Legal Reasoning sections - such as opinion and editorial pieces from newspapers. Since this is the case, every time you read a newspaper story while preparing for English Language, Legal Reasoning, or even Current Affairs and General Knowledge, try and go through the steps identified previously in this video - what is the main point of the passage? What is the author’s stance on a particular issue? What premises does the author offer in support of the conclusion? How would the conclusion differ if the premises were changed? And so on… As with the Current Affairs and General Knowledge section of the UG CLAT 2021, this is another section where discussions with a small group of people may help - try and create different versions of a principle or facts, and ask others to determine how they may affect the main argument or outcome of a passage or a question - the more you debate points with others, the greater the variety of arguments and reasoning styles you will encounter, which will help you tremendously with your preparations.
The sample questions and Model Papers released by the CLAT Consortium are, of course, your best source for practice - but there are a number of different sources where you may come across similar questions. In particular, try and see if you want to practice with the free question sets offered on the website of the LSAT or the LNAT - while these may not correspond exactly with the pattern of the UG CLAT 2022, they will help you develop the same skills of comprehension, analysis, deduction, and application that the Logical Reasoning section of the UG CLAT 2022 seeks to evaluate.
Illustration Question Set
1. In South Asia the ruling classes ignore the quotidian at their own peril. Just ask them about onions. This autumn the humble bulb has challenged titans.
The trouble began when unseasonably heavy rains followed drought across the onion-growing belt of north and central India. That not only all but destroyed the crop; the wet caused more than a third of onions in storage to rot. The result is a severe shortage of onions across India, as a result of which prices more than tripled.
This hardly threatens famine – something the green revolution abolished decades ago by boosting wheat and rice yields. Yet remove the onion and you struggle to imagine Indian cuisine. It forms the base for curries and biryanis. When a poor Indian has nothing else to eat, at least she has an onion with a chapati or two.
In late September the Indian government slapped a ban on exports of onions. That briefly brought down prices, helping consumers. But it has angered farmers and exporters in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka, for whom onions are an essential cash crop.
In South Asia, a region riven by geopolitical fault lines, there are international implications. Upon hearing of India’s export ban, Bangladesh’s strongwoman, Sheikh Hasina Wajed, admonished the Indian government for giving no warning. Her country counts on Indian onions, whose price at one point had risen fivefold in the markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh’s capital.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from “Banyan: Tight bulb moment”, The Economist, Vol. 433, No. 9172, December 7, 2019.]
1.1 Which of the following forms the premise for the author’s argument that a shortage of onions would not cause a famine in India today?
(a)India can ban exports of onions, thereby ensuring adequate supply.
(b)India can always import onions from its neighbouring countries.
(c)Onions are only used for flavour in Indian cuisine, and are not the main staple.
(d)There is enough wheat and rice for people to eat in India today because of the green revolution.
The correct answer is (d) – there is enough wheat and rice for people to eat in India today because of the green revolution. The author states this towards the beginning of the third paragraph. While each of the other options may be true, the author does not base the conclusion that a shortage of onions would not cause a famine in India today, on any of the statements set out in the other options. Therefore, none of (a), (b), or (c) can be the correct answer.
1.2 Which of the following is most likely to be true had heavy rains not followed drought across the onion-growing regions of India?
(a)Bangladesh would not have needed to import onions from India.
(b)There would not have been a shortage of onions in India.
(c)The onion harvest in storage would not have rotted.
(d)The onion crop would not have been destroyed.
The correct answer is (c) – the onion harvest in storage would not have rotted. We can infer this from the author’s statement that “the wet caused more than a third of onions in storage to rot”. There is nothing in the passage to indicate that Bangladesh would not have needed to import onions from India had the rains not followed the drought, and so, (a) cannot be the correct answer. It was a combination of the heavy rains and the preceding drought that caused a shortage of onions (and not either of these reasons alone), and so, (b) cannot be the correct answer. The onion crop was destroyed by the drought, not the rains, and so, (d) cannot be the correct answer either.
1.3 Which of the following can we infer from the passage above?
(a)Farmers in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka do not mind receiving lower prices from the sale of onions to ensure adequate supply of onions in India.
(b)Farmers in states other than Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka do not cultivate onions.
(c)Farmers in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka have been forced to cultivate onions because of the policies of the Indian government.
(d)Farmers in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka care more about earning money through selling onions than ensuring adequate supply of onions in India.
The correct answer is (d) – farmers in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka care more about earning money through exporting onions than ensuring adequate supply of onions in India. We can infer this because of the author’s statement about how the ban on export of onions brought down prices, but angered farmers in these states, who view onions as an important cash crop. Since option (a) directly contradicts this statement, (a) cannot be the correct answer. There is nothing in the passage to support either (b) or (c), and so, neither of these can be the correct answer.
1.4 Which of the following solutions, if employed by the Bangladesh government, would counter the effect of the ban on onion exports by India on the prices of onions in Dhaka’s markets?
(a)Prohibit onion cultivation in Bangladesh.
(b)Increase imports of onions from other countries.
(c)Close the market on alternate days.
(d)None of the above.
The correct answer is (b) – increase imports of onions from other countries. The price of onions would reduce with an increase in their supply. Option (a) would have the opposite effect, that is, it would result in a reduction of supply, and so, (a) cannot be the correct answer. Option (c) would not affect the supply of, or demand for, onions either, and so, this cannot be the correct answer. Since (b) is likely to counter the effect of the ban, for the reasons discussed, (d) cannot be the correct answer.
1.5 Which of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?
(a)Onions are not an important crop for either India or Bangladesh.
(b)The Bangladeshi government habitually opposes India’s export policies, and the ban on onion exports is the most recent example of such opposition.
(c)Adverse weather has affected the availability of onions in India, leading to cascading effects, including in neighbouring countries.
(d)Onions form a very important part of an India’s diet, and in the absence of anything else, an Indian can always eat onions with chapatis.
The correct answer is (c) - adverse weather has affected the availability of onions in India, leading to cascading effects, including in neighbouring countries. The author discusses the reason for the shortage of onions in India, how the government’s ban on exports affected farmers and exporters in India, as well as the impact upon prices of onions in Bangladesh, and the reaction of the government of Bangladesh to the ban. Since option (c) is the only option that addresses all these points, it is the correct answer. Option (a) contradicts the author’s description of how important onions are to an Indian’s diet, and so, cannot be the correct answer. There is nothing to indicate that the Bangladeshi government habitually opposes India’s export policies – the only instance we have is of their opposition to the ban on export of onions, and so, (b) cannot be the correct answer. While (d) may be true, it only touches upon one of the points the author discusses in the passage, rather than expressing the author’s main point, and so, (d) cannot be the correct answer.
How to approach questions in the Quantitative Techniques section of the CLAT-UG 2022
Since the Quantitative Techniques section of the UG CLAT 2022 differs from previous years’ papers in that it requires you to read a passage or analyse a set of graphical information before attempting a question, it is very important that you go through the passage provided, or the graphical information supplied to you, and list out (or underline) the information that is provided to you, and the information that you may need to answer the questions. As a simple example, a passage may provide the various speeds of trains, and the distance between two stations - in this case you know that you will probably need to calculate the time such trains may take to cover such distances.
Again, since the Quantitative Techniques section of the UG CLAT 2022 follows the general trend of changes in the CLAT towards a more comprehension-based format, it is important that you read the passages and questions very carefully, so as to ensure you have understood the information supplied, and what exactly the question is asking of you. Bear in mind that the question setters would tend to move away from formulae-based questions towards more logic-based questions - this means that they are not only looking at your ability to conduct simple mathematical calculations, they are also looking for your ability to analyse the passages and graphical information.
Quite often, a later question in any set of questions in the Quantitative Techniques section of the UG CLAT 2022 will require you to use some information that you may have calculated or derived in the course of answering a previous question. Since this is the case, it is important that you keep your rough notes and calculations neat and handy, so that you can quickly refer to such information when needed. Since the UG CLAT 2022 is, among other things, a test of your ability to answer questions efficiently, it would be a terrible waste of time if you had to hunt through your rough notes and calculations to find some vital piece of information.
In some instances, it is very helpful to keep a set of rough notes where you list out the main people, objects, or artifacts that the question relates to (such as trains, boats, vessels, etc.), and keep listing out relevant information relating to each of them as you go along - for example, in a question about time, speed, and distance, it is very useful to have information such as the length of a train, its speed, and what time it leaves a station, readily available. Not only will this save you time, it will also help avoid any mistakes in going back and forth across your notes to find some information that you had derived some time back.
Preparation Strategies/ FAQ
As with all the other sections of the UG CLAT 2022, practice is key in preparing for Quantitative Techniques - and in this case, luckily, you should have ready access to more than enough practice materials. The best way to prepare for this section of the UG CLAT 2022 is to go back to your tenth standard mathematics textbooks, and try and practice the questions and exercises in them as much as possible. Another good source for practice materials? The previous years’ question papers - while they may not include the additional element of requiring you to analyse a passage or graphical information and derive usable information from them, they will still help you develop the ability to perform common mathematical calculations quickly and accurately.
When you begin preparing for Quantitative Techniques, do not worry too much about how much time you need to answer questions - the more important thing at this stage is to answer questions accurately. As you practice, and as you develop a habit of being able to derive accurate answers, you can start focusing on speed. At this stage, it should be relatively easier for you to answer questions more quickly, since you have already figured out how to answer them accurately!
Whenever you attempt a set of practice questions, or a sample test, don’t just look at the answers to find out if you were right or wrong - always make sure you go through the solution as well, to see if the manner in which you solved the question can be improved upon. While you may have found the right answer to a question, it is quite possible that someone else has figured out a quicker or easier way to do so, and it would benefit you to understand that method of solving the question as well.
Illustration Question Set
1. Sang-Saath Bank’s employees’ picnic on a river island turned into a disaster as the newly constructed road bridge connecting the island to the riverbank collapsed. Evacuation operations had to be carried out by ferrying the employees from the island across the river and on to the riverbank. One-sixth of the employees were evacuated by villagers in a country boat. Of the remaining, one-fifth were evacuated by fishermen in a trawler. The remaining evacuees were joined by villagers who were helping with the evacuation. Finally, 8 motor boats with 8 people each left the island.
1.1 If half of the motor boats had one villager each and the other half had 2 each, what was the ratio of villagers to employees in the motor boats?
The correct answer is (b).
Number of people that left on the 8 motor boats = 8 * 8 = 64 (i)
Half of 8 boats had 1 villager each = ½ * 8 * 1 = 4 … (ii)
Half of 8 boats had 2 villagers each = ½ * 8 * 2 = 8 … (iii)
Therefore, total number of villagers = y = (ii) + (iii) = 4 + 8 = 12 (iv)
Therefore, total number of employees in the 8 motor boats = (i) + (iv) = 64 – 12 = 52 (v)
Therefore, ratio of villagers to employees in the 8 motor boats = (iv) : (v) = 12:52 = 3:13
1.2 How many employees were evacuated in the trawler?
Number of employees evacuated by the country boat = x/6 (vi) Remaining employees after country boat evacuation = x – x/6 = 5x/6 (vii) Number of employees evacuated by the trawler = 1/5 * 5x/6 = x/6 (viii)
[Note: See Rationale for 1.1 for calculated data] From (v) in Rationale for 1.1, we know that the number of employees evacuated by the 8 motor boats = 52.
Therefore, 52 = Remaining employees after country boat evacuation - Number of employees evacuated by the trawler, i.e. (vii) – (viii) = 5x/6 – x/6 = 4x/6 = 2x/3
Therefore, x = 52 * 3/2 = 78 = Total number of employees
Therefore, the number of employees evacuated by the trawler = 78/6 = 13
1.3 If there were 4 villagers in the country boat, and 6 fishermen in the trawler, and if an equal number of people travelled in each trip; i.e. country boat, trawler, and motor boats, how many people travelled in each trip?
Total number of employees = 78 [Note: See Rationale for 1.2]
Villagers and fishermen in the country boat and trawler = 4 + 6 = 10
Number of villagers in the 8 motor boats = 12 [Note: See (iv) of Rationale for 1.1]
Total number of people that travelled = 78 + 12 + 10 = 100
Number of trips = 1 (country boat) + 1 (trawler) + 8 boats = 10
Average number of people travelled by the country boat, trawler and the last 8 boats = 100/10 = 10
1.4 After they reached the shore, 1/3 of the employees took a taxi, half of them took a bus and the remainder took the train. The cost of a hiring a 4-seater taxi was Rs.500, the cost of hiring a bus was Rs.5000 and each train ticket was priced at Rs.75. The taxis took a maximum of four passengers each.
If the total expenditure on the different modes of transport was Rs.9,475, how many taxis were hired?
Total number of employees = 78 [Note: See Rationale for 1.2]
Number of employees that took a taxi = 1/3 * 78 = 26
Since each taxi is only a 4-seater, the number of taxis needed = 26/4 = 6 1/2
Therefore, number of taxis hired = 7
1.5 The total number of employees in Sang-Saath Bank is 4.5 times the number that went on the picnic. The Securities department of the bank consists of 4/9 of the total number of employees. The percentage of Sang-Saath Bank’s employees in the Securities department is:
(a) Between 45% - 50% of the total number of employees in the bank
(b) Between 40% - 45% of the total number of employees in the bank
(c) More than 50% of the total number of employees in the bank
(d) Less than 40% of the total number of employees in the bank
Total number of employees evacuated = 78 [Note: See Rationale for 1.2]
Total number of employees in the bank = 4.5 * 78 = 351
Number of employees in securities = 4/9 * 351 = 156
Percentage of people in Securities = 156/351 * 100 = 44.44%